## Electromagnetism & interactions

###### About Electromagnetism & interactions: Terms
AbsorptionAbsorption is the process where electromagnetic waves are absorbed by a material, converting their energy into internal energy.
AmpAn ampere, or amp, is the unit of electric current, representing one coulomb of charge passing through a point in one second.
AmplitudeAmplitude is the maximum height or displacement of a wave from its equilibrium position.
ChargeCharge refers to the fundamental property of matter that causes it to experience electromagnetic force.
DiffractionDiffraction is the bending and spreading of electromagnetic waves around obstacles or through narrow openings.
DispersionDispersion is the separation of electromagnetic waves into different colors or frequencies due to their different velocities in a medium.
Electric fieldAn electric field is a field defined by the magnitude of the electric force at any given point in space.
Electric PotentialElectric potential, also known as voltage, is the electric potential energy per unit charge at a point in an electric field.
Electromagnetic field theoryElectromagnetic field theory is a theoretical framework that describes the behavior of electric and magnetic fields and their interactions.
Electromagnetic forceElectromagnetic force is the force of attraction or repulsion between electrically charged particles and is mediated by photons.
Electromagnetic InductionElectromagnetic induction is the process of generating an electromotive force (EMF) in a conductor by varying the magnetic field around it or the conductor's position.
Electromagnetic RadiationElectromagnetic radiation is the emission and transmission of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves, including radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays.
Electromagnetic SpectrumThe electromagnetic spectrum is the range of all types of electromagnetic radiation, from radio waves to gamma rays, with various frequencies and wavelengths.
Electromagnetic WaveElectromagnetic waves are waves that consist of oscillating electric and magnetic fields and can travel through a vacuum or various media.
EnergyEnergy is the ability to do work or produce an effect and exists in various forms, including kinetic, potential, and electromagnetic energy.
EntanglementQuantum entanglement is a phenomenon where two or more quantum particles become connected in such a way that the state of one particle is dependent on the state of another, even if they are far apart.
Exclusion PrincipleThe Pauli exclusion principle states that no two identical fermions (particles with half-integer spins) can occupy the same quantum state simultaneously, leading to phenomena like electron shell filling in atoms.
FieldA field models what an object would experience related to a force at a given point in space.
Field linesField lines represent the direction and intensity of a field, such as a magnetic or electric field.
ForceForce is a push or pull on an object resulting from interactions with other objects or fields.
FrequencyFrequency is the number of wave cycles passing a fixed point in a given time, often measured in Hertz (cycles per second).
Harmonic OscillatorThe quantum harmonic oscillator is a model used in quantum mechanics to study systems that exhibit oscillatory behavior, such as vibrating atoms and molecules.
InterferenceElectromagnetic wave interference is the result of superimposing waves, leading to constructive or destructive interference patterns.
JouleA joule is the unit of energy in the International System of Units (SI), representing the work done when a force of one newton moves an object one meter against the force's direction.
Magnetic fieldA magnetic field is a field explaining the magnetic influence on an object in space.
PhotonA photon is a particle of light and other electromagnetic radiation, carrying a specific quantum of energy.
Photon energyPhoton energy refers to the energy carried by a photon, which depends on its frequency or wavelength.
PolarizationPolarization refers to the orientation of the electric and magnetic fields in an electromagnetic wave, which can be linear or circular.
PropagationElectromagnetic wave propagation is the process of how electromagnetic waves travel through different media, including air, vacuum, and various materials.
PropagationElectromagnetic waves propagate through space or matter, carrying energy and momentum from one location to another.
QEDQuantum electrodynamics is the quantum field theory that describes how photons (quantum particles of light) interact with charged particles, such as electrons and positrons, and how electromagnetic interactions occur at the quantum level.
ReflectionReflection occurs when electromagnetic waves encounter a surface and bounce back, following the law of reflection.
RefractionRefraction is the bending of electromagnetic waves as they pass from one medium to another with different optical densities.
Speed of LightThe speed of light, denoted by 'c,' is the speed at which electromagnetic waves travel through a vacuum, approximately 299,792,458 meters per second.
SpinQuantum spin is an intrinsic property of elementary particles that gives rise to their magnetic moment and is essential for understanding the behavior of particles in magnetic fields.
SuperpositionQuantum superposition is a fundamental principle in quantum mechanics, stating that a quantum system can exist in multiple states simultaneously until it is measured or observed, at which point it collapses into a definite state.
Wave superpositionElectromagnetic waves exhibit wave superposition, allowing them to interfere constructively or destructively when they overlap.
TransmissionTransmission refers to the passing of electromagnetic waves through a material without significant absorption or reflection.
TunnelingQuantum tunneling is a quantum mechanical phenomenon where a particle can pass through a barrier that classical physics would consider impenetrable due to the wave-like nature of particles.
VoltA volt is the unit of electric potential, representing one joule of energy per coulomb of charge.
WavelengthWavelength is the distance between two successive points of a wave that are in phase, such as crest to crest or trough to trough.
Wave-Particle DualityWave-particle duality is the concept that particles, such as electrons and photons, exhibit both wave-like and particle-like behaviors depending on the experimental conditions.
AtomAn atom is the basic unit of matter, consisting of a nucleus (protons and neutrons) surrounded by electrons in energy levels or shells.
NucleusThe nucleus is the central core of an atom, containing protons and neutrons, and it carries a positive charge.
ProtonA proton is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom, carrying a positive electric charge.
NeutronA neutron is a subatomic particle found in the nucleus of an atom, carrying no electric charge (neutral).
ElectronAn electron is a subatomic particle that orbits the nucleus, carrying a negative electric charge and contributing to the atom's size.
Atomic NumberThe atomic number represents the number of protons in an atom's nucleus, uniquely identifying each chemical element.
Mass NumberMass number is the sum of protons and neutrons in an atom's nucleus, providing the atom's total mass.
IsotopeIsotopes are variants of an element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons, leading to varied mass numbers.
Electron ConfigurationElectron configuration describes the arrangement of electrons in energy levels (shells) around the nucleus of an atom.
Valence ElectronsValence electrons are the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom and play a significant role in chemical bonding.
IonAn ion is an atom or molecule that has gained or lost electrons, resulting in a net electric charge (positive or negative).
MoleculeA molecule is a chemical compound formed when two or more atoms are bonded together, either of the same or different elements.
Electric Dipole MomentElectric dipole moment refers to the separation of positive and negative charges within a molecule, leading to an overall dipole.
Electric PolarizabilityElectric polarizability is a measure of a molecule's ability to create an induced electric dipole moment in response to an external electric field.
ElectronegativityElectronegativity is a measure of an atom's tendency to attract electrons towards itself in a chemical bond.
Molecular SpectroscopyMolecular spectroscopy studies the interaction between molecules and electromagnetic radiation, providing insights into molecular properties.
Molecular OrbitalA molecular orbital describes the distribution of electrons in a molecule, formed by the overlap of atomic orbitals from constituent atoms.
Chemical BondingChemical bonding involves the attraction and sharing of electrons between atoms, forming stable molecules and compounds.
Van der Waals ForcesVan der Waals forces are weak attractive forces between molecules, arising from temporary fluctuations in electron distribution.
Electric Field of a MoleculeThe electric field of a molecule describes the distribution of electric charge around the molecule, influencing its interactions.