The International Commission on Illumination (usually abbreviated CIE for its French name, Commission internationale de l’éclairage) is the international authority on light, illumination, colour, and colour spaces. It was established in 1913 as a successor to the Commission Internationale de Photométrie, which was founded in 1900, and is today based in Vienna, Austria.

CIE 1931 XYZ was the first attempt to produce a colour space based on measurements of human colour perception and the basis for almost all other colour spaces.

In 1976, the commission developed the CIELAB and CIELUV colour spaces, which are widely used today.