An electron is a subatomic particle, currently considered an elementary particle, as it doesn’t have any known parts or structure within it.

  • In an atom, electrons are arranged in orbitals, which are regions with a high probability of finding an electron. These orbitals are grouped into shells based on their energy levels.
  • Electrons exhibit both particle and wave properties. This wave-particle duality is a concept in quantum mechanics and is essential for understanding the behaviour of electrons.
  • Electrons are the primary carriers of a negative electric charge in an atom, and through their interactions with other particles and fields play an essential role in electromagnetism, electricity, magnetism, chemistry, heat transfer, gravitational and weak interactions.
  • Electrons significantly contribute to electromagnetism because they have an electric field around them, and when moving produce a magnetic field.
  • When accelerated electrons radiate or absorb energy in the form of photons.
  • Electrons can collide with other particles and can be diffracted similarly to light.
  • The spin of an electron makes it behave like a tiny magnet.
  • Spin is a type of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, atomic nuclei, and other quantum particles.
  • Spin is a key property of these particles, along with mass and charge. It’s important to note that spin is a quantum property and doesn’t involve actual spinning in the physical sense we’re used to.