Absorption

When light strikes an object the wavelengths that are not reflected or transmitted are absorbed and their energy is converted to heat.

About absorption
  • When the light is absorbed, its energy is transferred to electrons which re-emit the energy as heat.
  • Absorption of a particular wavelength of light into a material takes place when the frequency of the wave matches the frequency of electrons orbiting atomic nuclei.
  • As electrons orbiting atomic nuclei absorb energy, they heat up and vibrate more vigorously causing atoms to collide with one another.
  • Electrons selectively absorb photons with matching frequencies.
  • If light is reflected it bounces off at the same wavelength.
  • Of the light that reaches Earth’s surface from the Sun:
    • 54% is already heat (infrared wavelengths of light).
    • 45% is visible light.
    • 1% is shorter wavelengths (ultraviolet).
References
  • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absorption_(electromagnetic_radiation)