Interneurons are neurons that connect two brain regions.
- A neuron or nerve cell is an electrically excitable cell that communicates with other cells via specialized connections called synapses.
- Neuron are the main component of the tissue that forms the central nervous of human beings.
- In the neocortex (making up about 80% of the human brain), approximately 20–30% of neurons are interneurons.
- Interneurons are also referred to as relay neurons, connector neurons, intermediate neurons and local circuit neurons each of which helps to explain their function.
- Interneurons form nodes within neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system.
- Interneurons can be further broken down into two groups: local interneurons and relay interneurons.
- Local interneurons have short axons and form circuits with nearby neurons to analyse small pieces of information
- Relay interneurons have long axons and connect circuits of neurons in one region of the brain with those in other regions
- The interaction between interneurons allows the brain to perform complex functions such as sense-making.
- Amacrine cells in the human retina are interneurons that interact with retinal ganglion cells and/or bipolar cells.