Rod and cone photoreceptors within the retina of the human eye encode light into electrical signals that are transmitted via a complex network of interneurons to ganglion cells, which then forward visual information via the optic nerve to the brain.

About interneurons
  • Interneurons form nodes within the neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons within the central nervous system.
  • Visual processing in the retina of the human eye depends on coordinated signalling by interneurons.
  • Interneurons are sometimes referred to as local interneurons and relay interneuron.
    • Local interneurons have short axons and form circuits with nearby neurons to analyse small pieces of information.
    • Relay interneurons have long axons and connect circuits of neurons in one region of the brain with those in other regions.
  • The interaction between interneurons allows the brain to perform complex functions such as sense-making.