Horizontal cell

Retinal horizontal cells are laterally interconnecting neurons located in the retina of the human eye.

  • Horizontal cells are connected to the rod and cone cells by synapses, so horizontal cells are called laterally interconnecting neurons.
  • Horizontal cells help to integrate and regulate of photoreceptor cells, cleaning up and globally adjusting signals passing through bipolar cells towards the region containing ganglion cells.
  • An important function of horizontal cells is enabling the eye to adjust to both bright and dim light conditions. They achieve this by providing feedback to rod and cone photoreceptors about the average level of illumination falling onto specific regions of the retina.
  • If a scene contains objects that are much brighter than others, then horizontal cells are believed to prevent signals representing the brightest objects from dazzling the retina and degrading the quality of information.