Horizontal cell

Horizontal cells are neurons that interconnect with other types of neurons within the retina of the human eye.

  • Horizontal cells are one of several types of neurons found in the retina of the human eye. The other types include photoreceptor cells (rods and cones), bipolar cells, amacrine cells, and ganglion cells.
  • Horizontal cells interconnect with rod and cone cells via synapses, which is why they are often referred to as laterally interconnecting neurons.
  • Horizontal cells help to integrate and regulate photoreceptor cells, cleaning up and globally adjusting signals passing through bipolar cells toward the region containing ganglion cells.
  • An important function of horizontal cells is enabling the eye to adjust to both bright and dim light conditions. They achieve this by providing feedback to rod and cone photoreceptors about the average level of illumination falling onto specific regions of the retina.
  • Horizontal cells are believed to prevent signals representing the brightest objects in a scene from dazzling the retina and degrading the quality of information.