Bipolar cells

  • Bipolar cells are the retinal interneurons that provide the primary pathway from photoreceptors (rod and cone cells) to ganglion cells.
  • In addition to directly transmitting signals from photoreceptors to ganglion cells, they connect to amacrine cells that assist in integrating information and forming a comprehensive picture of an entire visual scene.
  • There are approximately a dozen types of bipolar cells, all of which serve as centres for integration.
  • Each type of bipolar cell acts as a dedicated channel for information about light, collected by either a single or a small group of rod or cone cells.
  • Each type of bipolar cell interprets and relays its own version of information gathered from photoreceptors to ganglion cells