Charged particles are the fundamental building blocks of matter. They include electrons, protons, and neutrons, which make up atoms, as well as ions, which are atoms that have lost or gained electrons. Charged particles also include more exotic particles, such as muons and pions, which are found in cosmic rays and in the decay of other particles.
The electric charge of a particle is measured in coulombs (C). An electron has a charge of -1.6×10^-19 C, while a proton has a charge of +1.6×10^-19 C. Neutrons are neutral and have no charge.
Charged particles interact with each others through the electromagnetic force, which is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. The electromagnetic force is responsible for the attraction between oppositely charged particles and the repulsion between like-charged particles. It is also responsible for the behaviour of electric and magnetic fields.
Charged particles are also affected by magnetic fields. A magnetic field exerts a force on a moving charged particle, which can cause the particle to change its direction or speed. This is how electric motors work.
A moving charged particle produces both an electric and a magnetic field. This is because a charged particle will always produce an electric field, but if the particle is also moving, it will produce a magnetic field in addition to its electric field.
The magnetic field is always perpendicular to both the direction in which the charge is moving as well as to the direction of the electric field.