About interneurons
  • Interneurons are also referred to as relay neurons, connector neurons, intermediate neurons and local circuit neurons each of which helps to explain their function.
  • Interneurons form nodes within neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system.
  • Interneurons can be further broken down into two groups: local interneurons and relay interneurons.
    • Local interneurons have short axons and form circuits with nearby neurons to analyse small pieces of information.
    • Relay interneurons have long axons and connect circuits of neurons in one region of the brain with those in other regions.
  • The interaction between interneurons allows the brain to perform complex functions, such as sense-making.

Interneurons & the human eye

About interneurons and the human eye
  • There are four types of interneurons in the human eye: They are the amacrine cell, bipolar cell, horizontal cell and Müller cell.
  • Interneurons in the human eye form a complex network of interconnections between photoreceptor cells (i.e., rod and cone cells) and retinal ganglion cells.
  • Rod and cone cells are the photoreceptor cells in the human retina that respond to light.
  • Ganglion cells are the retinal neurons that receive and integrate visual information from photoreceptor cells and then transmit it to the brain via the optic nerve.
  • The complex network of interneurons in the human eye plays an important role in the processing and integration of visual information before transmitting it to the brain.
  • This network is also responsible for various visual functions, including spatial filtering, contrast enhancement, and colour opponent processing.