Electron orbital

  • An electron orbital is a region of space around the nucleus of an atom where an electron is most likely to be found. Orbitals are not well-defined paths. They represent regions of space where the probability of finding an electron is high.
  • The arrangement of electrons in shells and orbitals around an atom’s nucleus is governed by the Pauli exclusion principle.
  • The Pauli exclusion principle ensures each electron occupies a unique quantum state, defined by four quantum numbers (n, l, mℓ, and s).
  • No two electrons can occupy the same quantum state simultaneously, leading to the formation of distinct shells and orbitals within each shell.
  • The four quantum numbers (n, l, mℓ, and s) dictate the specific orbital position of an electron, with n indicating the main energy level, ℓ defining orbital shapes, mℓ determining orbital orientation, and s indicating electron spin.
  • A table illustrating the quantum numbers for various electron orbitals can be found here.