A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
- A chemical compound consists of two or more atoms from different elements chemically bonded together.
- There are two types of chemical bond: covalent bonds and ionic bonds:
- A covalent bond forms when two atoms share a pair of electrons.
- Atoms can lose or gain electrons in chemical reactions. When they do this they form charged particles called ions.
- Chemical bonds occur because opposite charges attract via the electromagnetic force.
- Negatively charged electrons orbiting the nucleus of an atom and the positively charged protons in the nucleus attract each other.
- An electron positioned between two nuclei will be attracted to both of them, and the nuclei will be attracted toward electrons in this position. This attraction constitutes the chemical bond.
- Due to the matter-wave nature of electrons and their smaller mass, they must occupy a much larger amount of volume compared with the nuclei, and this volume occupied by the electrons keeps the atomic nuclei in a bond relatively far apart, as compared with the size of the nuclei themselves.
- The physical world is held together by chemical bonds, which dictate the structure and the bulk properties of matter.