- Interneurons can be classified as local circuit neurons and relay neurons:
- Local circuit interneurons have short axons and form circuits with nearby neurons to analyse small pieces of information.
- Relay interneurons have long axons and connect circuits of neurons in one region of the central nervous system with those in other regions.
- Interneurons form nodes within neural circuits, enabling communication between sensory or motor neurons and the central nervous system.
- The interaction between neurons and interneurons are essential to our living bodies but also enable the brain to perform highly complex processes such as sense-making.
About interneurons and the human eye
- There are at least four types of interneurons in the human eye: amacrine cells, bipolar cells, horizontal cells and Müller cells.
- Interneurons in the human eye form a complex network of interconnections between rod/cone cells and ganglion cells.
- Rod/cone cells are the photosensitive neurons in the human retina that respond to light.
- Ganglion cells are the neurons that complete the encoding of visual information and then forward it via the optic nerve towards the brain.