An atom is the smallest particle that can be described as a chemical.
- At the centre of an atom is a nucleus containing protons which are positively charged sub-atomic particles. The number of protons determines what chemical the atom produces. A hydrogen atom has a single proton.
- The nucleus also contains a number of neutrons, sub-atomic particles with no charge.
- Surrounding the nucleus are negatively charged particles called electrons which are held in place by their attraction to the positively charged nucleus.
- In atomic theory and quantum mechanics, an atomic orbital is a mathematical function describing the location and motion of electrons around the nucleus of atoms.
- In an atom, the number of electrons always matches the number of protons.
- When an electron is removed from an atom it forms a charged particle called an ion.
- For a single atom, the number of protons and neutrons combined determines its atomic mass.
- Atomic mass is a measure of the total mass of protons and neutrons in an atom and is used to order elements in the periodic table.