# Electrostatic & magnetic force

###### Electrostatic & magnetic force

The electrostatic and magnetic forces are two aspects of the same force and very closely related to each other.

The electromagnetic force is the fundamental interaction between electrically charged particles, manifested as either an attractive electrostatic force between stationary charges or a deflective magnetic force experienced by moving charges or those interacting with a magnetic field.

• While technically distinct, both forces stem from the same underlying electromagnetic interaction, governed by Maxwell’s equations.
• The electromagnetic force is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. The other three fundamental forces are the strong nuclear force, the weak nuclear force, and gravity.
• The electromagnetic force is the strongest of the four fundamental forces at the atomic and macroscopic levels.
• The electrostatic force is sometimes called the electric force.  While electrostatic force is the most common term, the electric force is the broader term, encompassing both static and moving charges.
• The word “electrostatic” emphasizes that the force is due to stationary (static) charges, while the word “electric” is a more general term that encompasses both static and moving charges.
• The magnitude of the electrostatic force between two charged particles is directly proportional to the product of their charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
• The electrostatic force is the force between two electrically charged particles, regardless of whether they are moving or not.
• The magnetic force is the force between two moving electric charges, or between a magnetic field and a moving electric charge.
• The magnetic force is responsible for the attraction between oppositely charged magnets, such as a north pole and a south pole. It is also responsible for the repulsion between like-charged magnets, such as two north poles or two south poles.
The magnetic force acts between moving electric charges or between a magnetic field and a moving electric charge.
• Magnetism in iron involves aligning magnetic domains, but the force involved is still the electromagnetic force acting through the magnetic field.
• The electrostatic and magnetic forces articulate the behaviour of electromagnetic fields. Electrostatic and magnetic forces reveal two aspects of the unified electromagnetic field.